1. THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:
Heart and large vessels - anatomical location and internal chambers. Great arteries and veins. Coronary circulation. Pulmonary and systemic circulations. Structure and function of blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries). Main arteries and veins of the body.
Lymphatic circulation - structure and organization.
2. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
Anatomical and functional divisions. Upper and lower respiratory tracts. Pleura - structure and function.
3. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
The digestive tube and appendix organs. Functional anatomy of the digestive tube: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines.
4. THE URINARY SYSTEM:
Macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the kidney. Structure of the nephron. Structure and function of the ureter, urinary bladder and uretra.
5. THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Blood - plasma composition and cellular components. Adaptive and innate immune systems.
Lymphatic system - structure and function. Lymphoid organs (spleen, tonsils and thymus), lymphatic cells and tissues.
6. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:
General structure and functional anatomy. Hormones secreted by the hypophysis, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, and pineal and reproductive glands.
7. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
Functional anatomy of the male and female reproductive systems. Relationship between sexual glands and hormones.
8. THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: Skin layers and appendages - structure, function and clinical significances.
9. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:
Functional and anatomical division. The central nervous system - brain and spinal cord. Association of cortical areas of the brain and their functions. The meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroglia. The peripheral nervous system - somatic and autonomous nervous systems, sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
The overall score in the subject will consist of the weighted average of the 6 marks obtained in the Kahoot tests (15%), practical exams (25%), and final theoretical exam (60%).
The theoretical exam will consist of multiple choice questions (MCQ). A penalty may be applied for incorrect answers. Nothing is deducted from unanswered questions.
The practical exam will consist of identifying structures in given pictures and/or mannequin.
Note: To pass the subject, students must achieve a minimum score of 5 in the theoretical exam in order to obtain the weighted average score of continuous assessment (Kahoots and the practical exams).
Students who fail to obtain a minimum of 5 on the theory exam will be required to sit the Basic Competences Exam (BCE).
The contents studied in Anatomy II are very extensive, so it is recommended a daily routine of studies. The success in this subject comes from knowing the terminology, the three-dimensional visualization of the structure(s) and using that knowledge to solve problems.
The Anatomy II course is organized under the systemic approach, which consists in the description of the major systems of the body – cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, endocrine, immune, reproductive and nervous.